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Technics of fencing
In technics and tactics of fencing on swords realized positions of rules of the competitions, supposing drawing of injections in any part of a body of the sportsman except for a nape (a trunk, hands, a mask, legs), regulating opportunities of an advancing of the opponent first of all are realized at mutual injections on 1/25 second share of second (0,04-0,05 sec). Besides this important value has weight of the weapon (within the limits of 700 grams), significant dimensions of bow, award of simultaneous injections to both fencers. The given features of fight conducting are precisely expressed in structure of actions of an attack and protection, tactical components of their preparation and application, requirements to precise characteristics of drawing injections, displays of visually-motor reactions, management of the weapon.
For fight on swords are typical a long distance between sportsmen, high vigilance to positions and movements of the opponent weapon, constant attention to a safety of own armed hand and ahead of a costing leg (as they are more close to the opponent, than other parts of a body), aspiration to the maximal accuracy of injections. At that armed hand of the opponent is the main target, that defines the special importance of speed and accuracy of visual and tactile reactions of the fencer, their precision according to conditions of fencing fight.
Are used all versions of the attacks finished by an injection in a trunk, hand, mask, leg, including attacks with one feint, a battement (capture) and their combinations. But simple attacks by an injection in a hand and attacks with action on the weapon an injection in a hand and a trunk as their application narrows prospects of counterattack of the opponent.
In defense the most widespread means - the counterattacks representing as though the first barrier for attacking, supplemented in conditions of continuation of fight with protection and an answer. The affinity to the opponent of the armed hand and a hip ahead of a costing leg of the sportsman during the moment of the termination of an attack, and also the «minimum» of time necessary for an advancing, have defined high productivity of repeated attacks, counterattacks and fines. Therefore as the integral component of technics of movements with the weapon serve oppositions, especially in attacks and answers.
In process of promotion to the opponent, both in attack, and at counteraction to its attack, extend opportunities for drawing injections in separate parts of an amazed surface. So, if the sportsman has beaten off 4-th protection an attack the «arrow» directed to a hand, but attacking has already promoted enough deeply, the injection will be in a hip ahead of a costing leg or the bottom sector of a trunk, and before a reciprocal injection or simultaneously with it.
In the same way attack (answer) by move in a trunk will end with an injection in a hand if the opponent unexpectedly approaches during fight or sets the armed hand forward.
The increase opportunities of drawing of an injection to the opponent in process of reduction of a distance in fight predetermines high productivity of repeated attacks and fines, deviations with a sword directed in a hand of the opponent. The extended hand in fight, at a miss in initial attempt to put an injection or parrying by its opponent, effective reception of counteraction to attacks (answers) as the opponent risks to come across a tip of blade, approaching during an attack his hand or other part of a body to an edge of the sword exposed forward.
Variety of defense means among which are counterattacks, protection and the counterprotection strengthened by different movings (deviation, rapproachement, evasion), leads to frequent occurrence of near fight. And fights in near fight are transient, abound with series of repeated injections, turns in the different parties and evasion, and also differ some power struggle by the weapon during the moment of collision bows or strong parts of blades.
Independent value have injections in a hand with a corner and in fights, especially in attacks and counterattacks. Applied unexpectedly, they deprive with the opponent of necessary accuracy of attacks.
Fencer’s movements have separate strongly pronounced features. In particular, in a fighting rack legs are slightly bent, distance between them within the limits of 1,5 stops, and maneuvering on a path free with frequent crossing the legs. «Arrow» takes a significant place though the leading part of attacks with lunges is kept, step (jump) forward and attack.
Aspiration to direct an edge of blade probably more close to a hand of the opponent is brightly expressed in attacks, answers, widely use bow’s movements with a view of protection of the armed hand.
In bases of technics and tactics of fencing on swords there’s much in common with fencing on rapiers. First of all it is structure of movements with the weapon at drawing injections in a trunk, existential characteristics of feints, necessity of preservation of a uniform plane between a shoulder-elbow and a hand in final position of protection, technics of direct protection and counterprotection. Also takes place leading part of circular top protection.
Tactics of fight on swords dictates necessity of alternation of protection with deviation and rapproachement. However direct protection are applied in much often, than circular, as attacks and answers more often are one-tempo and two-tempo.
By preparation of attacks (answers) important roles play abilities of the sportsman to present a direction of movement his own blade in a point of view of a prospective way and existential parameters of defensive actions of the opponent the weapon. Therefore attacking should understand tactical essence of operations that allows avoiding collisions with protection and opposition of the opponent, optimizing a choice of the most productive means for each situation, and also speed and amplitude of his movements by the weapon, length of movings on a fencing path, etc.
Duel of fencers occurs on a background of constant interaction by the weapon leading to occurrence of multievent fights, more often transient, at significant difficulties of preservation of technics in conditions of unexpected lengthenings a distance of a duel. Therefore in process of perfection of typical actions significant time should be given training of various combinations, both consisting of deliberate actions, and any way alternated by the trainer during training.
The confident management of the weapon, optimum parity of versions of attacks and counteractions are necessary for achievement of skill in fencing on swords to attacks (counterattacks and answers, fines and counteranswers). Besides the good maneuverability of sportsmen, suddenness of attacks, precision of visual and tactile reactions, providing accuracy of injections and reliability of counteraction to unexpected attacks, create preconditions for achievement of stable sports results.
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